But not everything expressed in words—even when organized and written down—is counted as literature. Those writings that are primarily informative—technical, scholarly, journalistic—would be excluded from the rank of literature by most, though not all, critics.
Classification[ edit ] Scholars have debated whether the earliest known Mi'kmaq "hieroglyphs" from the 17th century qualified fully as a writing systemrather than as a pictographic mnemonic device.
InIves Goddard and William Fitzhugh of the Department of Anthropology at the Smithsonian Institutioncontended that the pre-missionary system was purely mnemonic, as it could not be used to write new compositions.
Schmidt and Marshall argued in that the missionary system of the 17th century was able to serve as a fully functional writing system. This would mean that Mi'kmaq is the oldest writing system for a native language north of Mexico. This was sometimes done by pressing porcupine quills directly into the bark in the shape of symbols.
Le Clercq adapted those symbols to writing prayers, developing new symbols as necessary. The relationship of these symbols with Mi'kmaq petroglyphs is also unclear.
Pierre MaillardRoman Catholic priest, during the winter of —38  perfected a system of hieroglyphics to transcribe Mi'kmaq words. He used these symbols to write formulas for the principal prayers and the responses of the faithful, in the catechismso his followers might learn them more readily.
There is no direct evidence that Maillard was aware of Le Clercq's work; in any event Maillard's work is outstanding in that he left numerous works in the language, which continued in use among the Mi'kmaq into the 20th century.
An unknown number of birch scrolls containing mi'kmaq writings were destroyed by missionaries in New England, before the writing system was adapted to aid conversion of community members to Christianity.Forum in Teaching Early American Writings. Sources for Teaching Sixteenth- and Seventeenth-Century Colonial Spanish Literature of North America.
Thomson Shields, Jr. During a discussion session called "What is an Early Americanist?" at the American Literature Association meeting, an audience member asserted that in .
© by the American Anthropological Association. All rights reserved. 2 documents relating to the establishment of colonies in America. Literature: Literature, a body of written works. The name has traditionally been applied to those imaginative works of poetry and prose distinguished by the intentions of their authors and the perceived aesthetic excellence of their execution.
It may be classified according to a variety of systems, including language and genre. Citation Machine™ helps students and professionals properly credit the information that they use. Cite your journal article in American Psychological Association 6th edition format for free.
🔥Citing and more! Add citations directly into your paper, Check for unintentional plagiarism and check for writing mistakes. This article traces the history of American poetry, drama, fiction, and social and literary criticism from the early 17th century through the turn of the 21st century.
For a description of the oral and written literatures of the indigenous peoples of the Americas, see Native American literature.