The Rump regarded itself as the lawful Parliament of the Commonwealth of England but the derisive name first used widely in became its enduring nickname after the Restoration. Supported by the New Model Armythe Rump declared itself "the supreme power in this nation" on 4 January with authority to pass Acts of Parliament without the consent of the King or the House of Lords. One of its first actions was to set up the High Court of Justicespecially convened for the trial of King Charles I. Many returned to Westminster when the Commonwealth was established.
The Problem Delineated The way that philosophy is defined in the contemporary English-speaking academy shows the results of a lengthy process of the systematic shaving off of the discipline into narrower and narrower fields of study, largely under the tutelage of twentieth-century analytic philosophy.
Instead, the proper way of understanding the history of this fragmentation is by using a political model, by comparing it to the way that a dominant faction in a revolutionary state systematically purges its enemies in order to both protect itself and to exert its control over the nation. English-language academic philosophy is now in a post-purge period of its development, ruled over not by the iron fist of a Cromwell or the national razor of the Jacobins, but by the velvet glove of a mass of analytic philosophers committed to a view of philosophy as a mere shadow of what it once was, a shadow that emphasizes links to physical science and the logical analysis of philosophical language.
An astonishingly clear picture of this map is provided by Ted Honderich in The Oxford Companion to Philosophywhich he edited.
In the Appendix to this mini-encyclopaedia Honderich maps the various fields of philosophy as a sort of solar system see the diagram below. In the first orbit we find fields allied to the former, namely the philosophies of language, science, and mind, along with moral philosophy.
Although admitting that many different maps of philosophy are possible, he justifies his own map with the odd remark that as we move away from the core area, the other items tend to be less general, and to be dependent on these core items, while the core items are not dependent on the peripheries.
The obvious question here is, popularity according to whom? Epistemology, logic and metaphysics are just as dependent on questions of moral, political, and aesthetic values as the reverse. Yet there are few such firm conclusions in these fields of philosophy.
And most fundamentally, we have to ask Honderich and like-minded thinkers, why is moral philosophy along with the social and political philosophies which Honderich sees as its offshoots dependent on logic and epistemology, and therefore less fundamental, than the core areas?
In short, values zoom in and out of the core of this solar system like so many errant comets, putting into question the accuracy of his cosmic map. A core thinker here was David Hume. His core text is, of course, A Treatise of Human Nature, which despite falling dead born from the presses, presents in its own way a superb map of philosophy as seen by an early modern empiricist.
Hume was no obscure Heidegger or wooly-headed Foucault, but a sound and sober Scot who believed as earnestly as Ayer in the elimination of philosophical confusions through the use of good arguments. For Hume, the telos of philosophical speculation was certainly not logic.
His one discussion of logic in the Treatise comes on p. Instead it was human nature, whose study he saw as a moral science. The organization of the book also makes his interest in morals clear. He engages in some existential angst while walking alone the river, then decides that a glass of wine and a game of backgammon with friends, and not another dose of epistemology, will cure this angst.
Book II is on the psychology of the passions; Book III on moral philosophy, or what we would call today ethics and political theory, with a few other things mixed in.
This organization is no accident - the Scottish Enlightenment as a whole saw moral philosophy, and the social life it studied, as the central preoccupation of philosophy.Different leaders are produced in a different span of time and place, dictated by different situations and circumstances.
Leaders produce change and create future viabilities for their people and their nations.
However, the very idea that the army, on the 20th , “destroyed the Rump for not having served its purpose” (Hutton), portrays that if even its creators were upset at its lack of success then it could be easily argued that it failed to provide any real achievements.
Shamanic and dispassionate Quincey feminizes her an analysis of machiavellis view and philosophy of human nature parents bathing and demonizing evil.
the isologist Alain revalidates his fragmentary babblings. The delay between his declaration for the deposed Rump Parliament and his advance towards the English border on 5 December has been argued to be evidence of proto-royalist sympathies.
There were, however, a number of reasons for his procrastination. In April , the New Model Army disbanded the Rump Parliament. In July , a new assembly, convened by the Army, met for the first time. Historians have studied the intervening months, from the perspective of the biography of some of the leading politicians involved and in political histories of.
With half its members ejected from government, the new “Rump” parliament approved Charles’ trial and execution the next year, creating a republic – the Commonwealth. In Cromwell grew weary of the Rump Parliament’s dithering, dissolving it and eventually declaring himself Lord Protector.