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Additional villages or herds may be added to compensate for any refusals.
All selections must be random, and the final sampling number will be calculated for each strata. From this exercise it should be possible to estimate: This information can then provide the basic framework needed to establish a surveillance programme to support control or eradication.
Definitions Any surveillance system for brucellosis must include a set of specific definitions that clearly describe the terms used so that there is little room for doubt. These could include any or all of the following: Units of observation Traditionally the infection status of individual animals has been measured in brucellosis surveillance, but, as stressed earlier, rather than being an individual animal problem, brucellosis is a herd, flock, village or regional epidemiological problem.
Therefore, group data are a more accurate measurement of progress or lack thereof. For example, if the individual animal prevalence is gradually decreasing, but the herd or flock prevalence is increasing, then obviously the control programme should be investigated to determine the reasons for this anomaly.
In other situations, animals of the same species may commingle on community pastures, or as part of a village flock or herd - a situation probably best described using geographical coordinates, i.
Where there is a village system or extensive nomadic or transhumant systems, it becomes more difficult to define the observational unit unless sampling is confined to a specific time of the year where location is reasonably certain.
Mixing of small ruminants sheep and goats is very common in many countries that rely on extensive grazing. Intensively managed herds or flocks may be self-contained and essentially closed to all other livestock except via the introduction of semen or embryos.
Therefore, age ranges and sex status for surveillance purposes should be clearly defined, such as the following: Test eligible animals, including unvaccinated cattle of 6 months of age and older, and official calfhood B.
Note that some countries exclude spayed and castrated animals from testing. Test eligible animals, including all unvaccinated animals over 6 months of age and B.
Brucellosis-exposed animals For example, all cattle in a known infected herd or that have been in contact with known Brucella reactors in a market for at least 24 hours.
Criteria for Brucella-free herds and regions Freedom may be defined on the basis of time and specific areas, as well as on the history of successful elimination of infected animals or herds or flocks. Types of production system These would be dairy, beef, confinement, etc.
Types of officially recognized identification systems This would include vaccinated and reactor animals Permits for movements Types of tests their interpretation, and vaccines officially recognized 4. Type of livestock production, marketing and slaughter systems Great variation exists among livestock production systems worldwide, from the landless total confinement intensive systems of dairy cattle to the extensive husbandry of mixed species grazing with very low animal concentrations per unit area.
Obviously, the type of system will affect the rate of spread of infection both within and between villages, herds and flocks. In the early stage of test and slaughter phases, on-farm village sampling is preferred, particularly as the owner can be actively involved in education.
Later, as the prevalence decreases, off-farm sampling at markets or abattoirs is generally more cost-effective, providing that ownership or identification is maintained. In most livestock, parturition is seasonal, and knowledge of these patterns is important in determining probable times for the occurrence of abortions.
Migratory herds or flocks may be more easily located during lambing or kidding periods. The sale of animals for meat depends on many factors and is usually not random throughout the year.
In some cases, long periods may occur with very few animals sold, so a slaughter-based surveillance programme could be inefficient. Markets, especially if terminal i. If movement permits are required, this event can also used for blood sampling.
Testing of bulk milk for brucellosis is a valuable screening test in cattle, and samples may be collected either on-farm where tanker collection is undertaken or at a milk plant where producers bring their milk for sale on a regular basis.
Routine milk quality examination samples may also be used for brucellosis testing. In summary, a careful study of all the livestock systems in relation to brucellosis epidemiology should be undertaken prior to commencing surveillance, facilitating the determination of the most convenient and economical sampling sites.
Availability of information on livestock numbers and identification in herds, flocks and villages Most countries have an established system for collecting livestock data, varying from complete census at specified intervals to intermittent sampling programmes. Periodic census data may also be updated by estimates between censuses.
As parturitions are often seasonal, the time of the year when sampling occurs should be specified.Factors of production are the resources used to produce goods and services. Economists divide the factors of production into four categories: land, labor, capital, and entrepreneurship.
The incorporation of these resources into the design of work environments should, ideally, be combined with organizational and facilities management policies that maximize the health- . FACTORS OF PRODUCTION In economics, factors of production are the inputs to the production process.
Finished goods are the output. Input determines the quantity of output i.e. output depends upon input. Input is the starting point and output is the end point of production process and such input-output relationship is called a production function. 'Factors of production' may also refer.
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The design of an effective surveillance system for animal brucellosis in a region or country depends on many factors, as discussed below. routine testing of on-farm samples, such as milk or blood, notifications from veterinarians if brucellosis is reportable to the authorities, and off-farm sampling.