History[ edit ] Ancient and medieval[ edit ] The use of prisons can be traced back to the rise of the state as a form of social organization. Corresponding with the advent of the state was the development of written languagewhich enabled the creation of formalized legal codes as official guidelines for society.
The aforementioned assertion means that deviance is relative, vis-a-vis what some people consider normal others consider deviant and vice versa. According to Schaefer deviant behavior that violates social norms.
Henslin explicitly defines deviance as all violations of social rules regardless of their seriousness whilst crime is the violation of codified laws. Other scholars are of the view that crime and deviance emanate from social reaction, strain caused by the society, social transformation and interaction just to mention a few.
Conversely some scholars avow that it is rather biological and psychological factors. Therefore this essay will delve into their all these matters.
To begin with, deviance is not based on the act but on the reaction to that act. It is a matter of definitions, where the same act is interpreted differently by two parties. Behaviors must be viewed from the frame work of the culture they take place.
According to Sutherland human beings learn how to behave in a social situation whether properly or improperly Schaeffer According to this theorypeople learn to deviate or conform to societal norms due to association, thus through social interaction, interacting with his or her immediate environment.
Positive responses from the parentssuch as love and warmth contribute to positive self image. Such a child is more susceptible to the influences of delinquent groups and to deviant behavior.
The statistics found by Beck, Kline et al showed that families involved in crime set their children on a lawbreaking path. Horowitznoticed how young man in the lower class Chicano neighborhood in Chicago fought a lot to protect their honor, of which to many societies it is violence.
Symbolic Interactionists say that people produce their own orientations to life the choice of membership, differential association, helps shape an individual. Furthermore, people are shown to have the ability to make choices hence if one turns to a deviant behavior they find solace in such acts.
Reckless developed the control theory that stresses that two control systems work against our motivations to deviate. Hirschi notes that the more that people feel bonds with society the more effective their inner controls are. This can all be summarized as self-control which can be learnt through socialization.
However people of the lower class are bound to have a lesser bond with society hence in so doing they try to better their living conditions through any means possible thus they deviate from societal ways or norms.
However it would be anecdotal to conclude with fingers just pointing at the lower class individual for there is also white collar crime by people of higher classes hence most if not everyone in society has a deviant characteristic.
It is then a matter of say putting to scale the acts of deviance to find the better ones. In addition, the labeling theory of Lemert argues that, social reaction to deviance can result labeling effects that amplify the importance of the original violation, thus leading to more deviance.
This process according to Ramsar entrench the delinquent in a career trajectory that leads to greater rather than less involvement in the offensive behavior, not least because options to engage in non-offensive behaviors are closed off, while attributes, qualities and skills in relation to the law or norm violation behavior are enhanced.
Thus, social construction of crime, through its amplification by social reaction can produce the real consequences of career criminals or deviants as the offenders become engulfed in copying with the stigma of a deviant individuality that ultimately might lead to his or her embrace of that socially constructed identity.
Chambliss postulates on the power of labeling, on his the study of students with the same deviant behavior but from different classes. The saints where from the upper and middle class. The roughnecks where from the low class.
The saints where seen by the teachers, police and other people as headed for success and the rough necks headed for trouble. Being labeled a deviant can lock people out of conforming groups and force them into exclusive contact with people with similar labels hence self fulfillment takes place.
The recent presidential amnesty in Zimbabwe is an example of this, as seventeen of the pardoned inmates have been convicted again.
Furthermore, Functionalist argue that society is bigger than an individual, hence society constructs norms and values which act as guide lines to control individuals Schaefer Crime and deviance constitute a classic pathology within societies which has led to a variety of responses at political and societal level.
This essay will explore crime the cause of crime and deviance with two theories, the labelling theory and biological theory. A brief overview of some sociological perspectives on crime and deviance – from Functionalism through to Right Realism. Theory Summary Functionalism Argue that societies need a limited amount of crime, because crime is inevitable (society of saints argument) and that Continue reading →.
Understanding crime and deviance is important as lower crime rates have positive effects on society; for example property values improve and money saved in the police or prison services could be made available for other social projects such as the education system.
An essay plan on the Marxist Theory of Crime and Deviance – starting with an introduction outlining the Marxist conception of social class and then covering key points such as the costs of corporate crime, selective law enforcement and crimogenic capitalism, with some overall evaluations and a conclusion to round off.
Introduction to critical criminology Introduction. The material presented here introduces the field of critical criminology, which emphasises the determining contexts of crime and the delivery of justice, aiming to broaden the scope of criminological analysis.
Essay on Social Norms - Deviance is a title that insinuates the violation of social norms in society. This can be described as adjacent to criminal and improper behaviour imposed by the people who break the social norms of a society.