Merton thesis Save The Merton thesis is an argument about the nature of early experimental science proposed by Robert K.
However, unlike Parsons, who emphasized the necessity for social science to establish a general foundation, Merton preferred more limited, middle-range theories. Merton later explained in his writings, "although much impressed by Parsons as a master-builder of sociological theory, I found myself departing from his mode of theorizing as well as his mode of exposition.
Merton believed that middle range theories bypassed the failures of larger theories because they are too distant from observing social behavior in a particular social setting.
Theories of the middle range should be firmly supported by empirical data. These theories must be constructed with observed data in order to create theoretical problems and to be incorporated in proposals that allow empirical testing. Like Durkheim and Parsons he analyzes society with reference to whether cultural and social structures are well or badly integrated.
Merton is also interested in the persistence of societies and defines functions that make for Merton thesis adaptation of a given social system. He believed that the way these early functionalists put emphasis [vice "emphasize"] on functions of one social structure or institution for another, created bias when focusing only on adaptation or adjustment because they would always have a positive consequence.
This outlook maintains that various parts of social systems must show a high level of integration, but Merton argues that a generalization like this cannot be extended to larger, more complex societies.
The second claim has to do with universal functionalism. This claim argues that all standardized social and cultural structures and forms have a positive function. Merton argues that this is a contradiction to what is seen in the real world; not every structure, idea, belief, etc.
The third claim of functional analysis that Merton argues with is that of indispensability. This claim states that the standardized parts of society have positive functions, and also represent indispensable parts of the working whole, which implies that structures and functions are functionally necessary for society.
Here, Merton argues, people must be willing to admit that there exist various structural and functional alternatives within society. Merton elaborates on his three main issues or flaws with functionalism, which he labels postulates.
His identified faults are distinguished as: The postulate of the functional unity of society refers to the misunderstanding that societies are functional and harmonious unions.
Merton points out that not all societies are happy and well-integrated, where the people function well together and all involved prosper. Merton cites examples, such as civil wars, African-Americans in the s and South African blacks during the apartheid regime as instances where societies were not necessarily functional for all people.
The postulate of universal functionalism disproves the idea that not all ideals work for everyone in a society. Merton believes that some things may have consequences that are generally dysfunctional or which are dysfunctional for some and functional for others. For example, poverty may benefit the rich because they are allowed to maintain more of their wealth, but it certainly does not benefit the poor who struggle.
On this point he approaches conflict theoryalthough he does believe that institutions and values can be functional for society as a whole.
Merton states that only by recognizing the dysfunctional aspects of institutions, can we explain the development and persistence of alternatives. Lastly, the postulate of indispensability challenges the social function for customs, ideals, or institutions as a whole. Merton raises the question and doubt of whether every social institution performs a specific function.
Merton believes that several institutions can provide the same function or none at all, so it is impossible to decipher what functions are vital or not to a society.
In doing this, he was able to point out the details as well as the contradictions of the overall concept. Merton clarified the concept by stating that a certain degree of social cohesion eases the productivity of a group and is therefore functional, but it can become dysfunctional when it surpasses a certain threshold, because then the members of the group may become equally indulgent and fail to hold each other to high performance standards.
Because the issues are complex and based on a lot of subjective judgement, they cannot be calculated and weighed easily. Therefore, positive functions and dysfunctions cannot be simply added up and objectively determine which outweighs the other.
In order to deal with these issues, Merton believed that there must be levels of functional analysis. Rather than solely focusing on the analysis of society as a whole, Merton argued that analysis could and should also be done on an organization, institution or group.
Manifest and latent functions and dysfunctions Some of the crucial innovations that Merton made to sociology include the description of the unanticipated consequences of social action, of latent functions vs. Everyone is aware of the intended consequences, but the unintended are more difficult to recognize, and therefore, sociological analysis is required to uncover what they may be.
One of these outcomes is the "self-defeating prophecy", which through the very fact of its being publicized, is actually wrong.The Diary of a Young Girl is a book based on the writings from a diary written by Anne Frank while she was in hiding for two years with her family during the Nazi occupation of the Netherlands.
Thomas Merton OCSO (January 31, – December 10, ) was an American Trappist monk, writer, theologian, mystic, poet, social activist, and scholar of comparative plombier-nemours.com May 26, , he was ordained to the priesthood and given the name Father Louis..
Merton wrote more than 70 books, mostly on spirituality, social justice and a quiet pacifism, as well as scores of essays and reviews. The Other Merton Thesis institutions as well. see Abraham ) is one of the few to take up the social structural aspects of Merton's analysis of the legitimation of science as a social activity.
would seem theoretically congenial? To borrow a theme from . Merton Thesis The Merton Thesis is an argument about the nature of early experimental science proposed by Robert K. Merton. Similar to Max Weber's famous claim on the link between Protestant ethic and the capitalist economy, Merton argued for a similar positive correlation between the rise of Protestant pietism and early experimental science.
The Merton thesis is an argument about the nature of early experimental science proposed by Robert K. Merton. Similar to Max Weber's famous claim on the link between Protestant work ethic and the capitalist economy, Merton argued for a similar positive correlation between the rise of Protestant Pietism and early experimental science.
The Merton thesis identifies two movements — English Puritanism and German Pietism — as causally significant in the development of the scientific revolution of the 17th and 18th centuries.
It attributes this connection to a strong compatibility between the values of ascetic Protestantism and.