If you use the Modern Language Association MLA style of writing, you will be required to format your citations of the essays you reference depending on where you found the work, such as from the web, from a magazine or from a book. The works cited should appear in 12 point font -- typically Times New Roman -- and be double-spaced. Margins should be 1 inch on all sides. Any citations that require more than one line should utilize a hanging indent, where the second and all subsequent lines of the citation are indented five spaces.
Originally published as 20 J. For educational use only. The printed edition remains canonical. For citational use please obtain a back issue from William S.
Introduction This Essay is a distillation of two speeches. The common theme of my two speeches is the apparent disregard by gun control more correctly, gun prohibition advocates of civil liberties and civil rights issues, the largely adverse criminological research conclusions, and Second Amendment constitutional scholarship.
Thus, both my speeches stressed the remarkable discrepancy between scholarship whether social scientific or constitutional and the "accepted wisdom" that disarming ordinary, law abiding, and responsible citizens is both desirable and constitutional.
It is less about criminology than about ideology and morality. But, this broad popular support is based on a desire to mitigate the social harms associated with firearms. Such pragmatic concerns are largely tangential to the cultural and moral concerns that motivate the anti-gun movement of organizations like Handgun Control, Inc.
They seek laws to affirm symbolically their moral vision while simultaneously rejecting and condemning the contrary moral vision of gun owners. A law banning defensive gun ownership will inculcate their views that: Professor Gary Kleck's Point Blank: Guns and Violence in America.
As a social scientist, Ross commends Kleck's meticulous clarification of the p. Thus, Ross does not deny though neither does he dwell on the fact that handguns save far more innocent lives than criminals misusing them take each year. However, Ross asserts that "despite the masses of data and the cleverness of his analysis and argument, Kleck has missed the point.
The social order is seen to rest adequately on masses of potential victims using the threat of gun violence to deter masses of potential armed criminals. But Ross' remarks show that this argument means less than otherwise appears.
For, when it turns out that it is defensive gun ownership that saves lives, it also turns out that saving lives is not "worth it"--at least not to Ross who is very candid about this observation. Ross approvingly notes that the tragic "fate of James Brady" provided the "impetus for attempts at broader gun control.
My point is to show that the willingness to sacrifice what the anti-gun movement is ostensibly seeking to preserve explains the anti-gun ideology's disregard for criminological and historical facts, as well as civil liberties issues.
The Second Amendment  My position here, like that of virtually every other scholar who has recently addressed the issues, discomfits both extremes in the gun debate.
Let me begin with the common denial by anti-gun advocates that the right to arms applies to individuals. They claim that the Second Amendment only guarantees states the right to armed militias.
This position is not just wrong, but frivolous--something that no knowledgeable person can honestly argue in light of modern research. Among thirty-six law review articles addressing the Amendment sinceonly four take the states' right position.
Three of those articles were written by paid employees of anti-gun groups and the fourth by a politician. The States' Right View--A 20th Century Invention The very concept that the Second Amendment only guarantees that states will have the right to maintain a militia, while denying individuals the right to bear arms, is an invention of this century's gun control debate.
The Founding Fathers seem not to have had even the remotest inkling of such a concept. This commentary was widely published and republished before Congress when it enacted the Bill of Rights.
They consistently lumped these rights together under such descriptions as "human rights," "private rights," rights "respecting personal liberty," and "essential and sacred rights.
Madison, a leading Federalist defender of the Constitution, categorically denied that his amendments would reduce federal power in any respect.
These proposed amendments were rejected. If he had thought the Second Amendment related to the military-militia provisions, he would have included it in Article I, Section 8. Instead, he planned to insert the right to arms with freedom of religion, the press, and other personal rights in Section 9 following the rights against bills of attainder and ex-post facto laws.
To reiterate, the idea of the Second Amendment as something other or less than a guarantee of an individual right to arms is a purely twentieth Century invention that prior generations, especially the Constitution's authors, did not contemplate.
General Attitude of the Founders Toward Firearms Historical research demonstrates the Founders out-"NRAing" even the NRA in expressing what one intellectual historian has described as their "almost religious [attitude] about the relationship between men and arms" in a free society.How to Write a Research Essay.
In this Article: Article Summary Researching a Topic Organizing your Essay Writing your Essay Community Q&A Research essays are extremely common assignments in high school, college, and graduate school, and are not unheard of in middle school.
How to quote a source Additional resources These materials will help you avoid plagiarism by teaching you how to properly integrate information from published sources into your own writing.
How to Put a Quote in an Essay. In this Article: Article Summary Sample Quotes Putting Quotes in Your Writing Citing Quotes Using MLA Style Citing Quotes Using APA Style Citing Quotes Using the Chicago Manual of Style Community Q&A Using direct quotes in essays is a great way to support your ideas with concrete evidence and to make your argument come alive.
Sample essay 1 The assignment topic How can schools make the best use of information technology in the classroom? (Word limit: words) Analysing and researching the topic. Setting Out References How to reference using the American Psychological Association (APA) style of referencing 5th Edition Authored By Lorraine Nielsen.
Quoting your sources. If you need help incorporating your sources into your essay, the first thing you'll need to remember is that quotes cannot stand alone--they can't be placed in a sentence all by themselves. You need to make each quote a part of your essay by introducing it beforehand and commenting on it afterward.