This Empire was divided into two parts, Eastern and Western in the 4th century A. Rome was taken by the Ostrogoths and the centralized government finally failed. Throughout medieval times, the history of Italy followed no coherent form.
Background[ edit ] Italy was unified by Rome in the third century BC. For years, it was a kind of territorial extension of the capital of the Roman Republic and Empireenjoying, for a long time, a privileged status and so it was not converted into a province. However, the emperor was an absentee German -speaking foreigner who had little concern for the governance of Italy as a state; as a result, Italy gradually developed into a system of city-states.
Southern Italy however was governed by the long-lasting Kingdom of Sicily or Kingdom of Naplesinitially established by the Normans. Central Italy was governed by the Pope as a temporal kingdom known as the Papal States.
This situation persisted through the Renaissance but began to deteriorate with the rise of modern nation-states in the early modern period. Italy, including the Papal Statesthen became the site of proxy wars between the major powers, notably the Holy Roman Empire including AustriaSpainand France.
Harbingers of national unity appeared in the treaty of the Italic Leagueinand the 15th century foreign policy of Cosimo De Medici and Lorenzo De Medici.
Leading Renaissance Italian writers DantePetrarchBoccaccioMachiavelli and Guicciardini expressed opposition to foreign domination. Petrarch stated that the "ancient valour in Italian hearts is not yet dead" in Italia Mia.
Machiavelli later quoted four verses from Italia Mia in The Princewhich looked forward to a political leader who would unite Italy "to free her from the barbarians ".
However, the Spanish branch of the Habsburg dynastyanother branch of which provided the Emperors, continued to rule most of Italy down to the War of the Spanish Succession — The Italian campaigns of the French Revolutionary Wars destroyed the old structures of feudalism in Italy and introduced modern ideas and efficient legal authority; it provided much of the intellectual force and social capital that fueled unification movements for decades after it collapsed in Beauharnais tried to get Austrian approval for his succession to the new Kingdom of Italy, and on 30 MarchMurat issued the Rimini Proclamationwhich called on Italians to revolt against their Austrian occupiers.
Reaction and dreams —[ edit ] After Napoleon fell, the Congress of Vienna —15 restored the pre-Napoleonic patchwork of independent governments. Italy was again controlled largely by the Austrian Empire and the Habsburgs as they directly controlled the predominantly Italian-speaking northeastern part of Italy and were, together, the most powerful force against unification.
Published in and extensively revised in the following years the version of I Promessi Sposi used a standardized version of the Tuscan dialecta conscious effort by the author to provide a language and force people to learn it.
Three ideals of unification appeared. Vincenzo Giobertia Piedmontese priest, had suggested a confederation of Italian states under leadership of the Pope in his book, Of the Moral and Civil Primacy of the Italians.
The middle position was proposed by Cesare Balbo — as a confederation of separate Italian states led by Piedmont.
AfterFreemasonry in Italy was repressed and discredited due to its French connections. A void was left that the Carboneria filled with a movement that closely resembled Freemasonry but with a commitment to Italian nationalism and no association with Napoleon and his government.
The response came from middle class professionals and business men and some intellectuals. The Carboneria disowned Napoleon but nevertheless were inspired by the principles of the French Revolution regarding liberty, equality and fraternity.
They developed their own rituals, and were strongly anticlerical. The Carboneria movement spread across Italy. Nevertheless, the movement survived and continued to be a source of political turmoil in Italy from until after unification. The Carbonari condemned Napoleon III who, as a young man, had fought on the side of the Carbonari to death for failing to unite Italy, and the group almost succeeded in assassinating him inwhen Felice OrsiniGiovanni Andrea PieriCarlo Di Rudio and Andrea Gomez launched three bombs at him.
Many leaders of the unification movement were at one time or other members of this organization. The chief purpose was to defeat tyranny and to establish constitutional government. Though contributing some service to the cause of Italian unity, historians such as Cornelia Shiver doubt that their achievements were proportional to their pretensions.
Following his release inhe went to Marseille in France, where he organized a new political society called La Giovine Italia Young Italywhose motto was "Dio e Popolo" God and Peoplewhich sought the unification of Italy.
He escaped to South Americathough, spending fourteen years in exile, taking part in several wars, and learning the art of guerrilla warfare before his return to Italy in During this time period of , Italy was not a unified country, and was divided into many states, which, in Northern Italy, were ruled by the Austrian Empire.
A desire to be independent from foreign rule, and the conservative leadership of the Austrians, led Italian revolutionaries to stage revolution in order to drive out the Austrians. Following Italy's unification in , the nation suffered from a lack of raw materials, economic imbalance between the North and South, the absence of educational systems and the great cost of unification itself.
Italy faced these challenges and made great advances over the fifty years that. Medieval Italy were always divided between north and south.
After the end of the Napoleonic wars, Italy was divided between houses of habsburgs and bourbon. Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia were ruled by the house of Savoy centered in Turin.
Nationalism spread within the divided italians and Count. In , he formed an alliance with France, one that included a pledge of military support if necessary, against Austria, Italy's major obstacle to unification.
After a planned provocation of Vienna, Austria declared war against Sardinia in and was easily defeated by the French army. So Italy was not unified after the Congress of Vienna due to a number of reasons, such as the foreign influence of the Central European Powers, parochialism within the .
Italy before and after unification > Italy before and after unification The early history of Italy is that of Rome and -the Roman Empire, a martial and cultural administration which left its mark on the language and history of the Western World.